Over the course of the Great Recession, 5. Since then, the multiple jobholding rate has continually declined. As of , it was 4. Irrespective of the unemployment rate, the long-run multiple jobholding rate is declining.
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Link Between Multiple Jobholding and Unemployment. While declines are persistent across different demographics, it is interesting to note that men and women started out with similar rates of multiple jobholding about 6 percent , but over time, the rate for men has declined faster than for women, leading to a widening gap. In , about 4.
Similarly, Blacks, have higher multiple jobholding rates than individuals of White, Asian or Hispanic racial and ethnic identity. The BLS defines full-time workers as those working at least 35 hours per week.
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Those working 60 or more hours are workers with two full time jobs, a full time and part time job, or two part-time jobs that are nearly full-time. Data show that, among workers with multiple jobs, the vast majority are managing either one full-time job and a secondary part-time job or two part-time jobs. Only a tiny fraction 4 percent work two full-time jobs. Another possible way to analyze the question of multiple jobholding is to explore the rise of the gig economy or platform work.
Recently, the BLS conducted a survey on alternative work arrangements to capture this trend. It found no change in the share of workers with such jobs between and The share of independent contractors rose from In a revised analysis , economists Lawrence Katz and Alan Krueger find a similar increase in the share of workers in alternative work arrangements of about 1 to 2 percentage points between and , correcting their previous finding of a 5-percentage point change. It is still possible however, that we may be missing some pieces of the puzzle.
For instance, are people correctly reporting their earnings from digital platforms? The BLS does not count those who are self-employed in their primary job, but earn additional income in ways such as driving for as Uber or Lyft, as multiple jobholders. In addition, research by economists Katherine Abraham and John Haltiwanger links household and administrative tax data across individuals, revealing a noticeable increase in the share of individuals who report self-employment income to the IRS, but do not report such income in the CPS data.
At the same time, the relatively muted wage growth in an otherwise tight labor market has been a puzzle.
Another study finds that the BLS measure of unemployment understates the true unemployment rate and labor force participation rate by an average of two points, and this bias has increased since the Great Recession. In the Greek original, the reference being used is a promise to answer prayers for those who agreed together, and so refers to verse 19 where the verb agree appears , not to two or three being gathered together, as in verse 20, where the two or three refers to verse In verse 19, the agreement of two happens in the context of the church being given the authority to bind and loose in verse Jesus promises that his Father in heaven will give them what they ask verse The original Orthodox prayer in Greek got the verbs right from verse 19 , but the context wrong.
Then the Book of Common Prayer compounded the problem by replicating the contextual error of the Greek ritual with more consistent reference to verse 20 instead of verse But in the process, it confuses the persons of the Trinity relative to the actual promises in Matthew In short, Matthew is clear Jesus was speaking about conflict resolution. Liturgical tradition, both Orthodox and Anglican and others in between and since , has made a bit of a mess of the biblical witness to the words of Jesus in order to make a claim about the numbers in prayer or worship and the presence or action of Jesus or the Father the Bible does not make.
Quit citing these texts in such settings.
The Bible does not claim Jesus promised this. Nor should we use this misreading of the Bible, aided by other misreadings and mistranslations, to make excuses for or cover over poor or low attendance. Take seriously the work of conflict resolution Jesus was actually addressing in Matthew 18, and even more seriously the promises of Jesus. He does promise to be with us when we need to call in one or two others to help us listen better. And he does promise the Father will do what we ask him to do when even the best efforts of the two or three are not enough and we have to escalate the resolution process to a higher level.
Trust that our Triune God hears us when we pray and attends to our worship. May the peace of Christ, which he does promise to give us, be with us all, and bring more and more of us to peace in his name.
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The Rev. August 21, By Taylor Burton-Edwards. But the context of that text has nothing to do with prayer or worship. It is instead about the process of resolving conflict.
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